Sunday, 21 July 2019

DNA and Missing Fathers

I grew up believing that Jacqui was my aunt, she was a very young trendy aunt who lived on Portobello road in London, she collected antiques and was very artistic.
Jacqui planted in me a love for herbs and old things and she has taught me how to make quilts and rag rugs and even took me to a Victorian rubbish dump to dig for old bottles and pots, great fun.
When I was 17 and visiting my elder sister Denise in California, she suddenly out of the blue asked me whether I knew that Jacqui was our half sister and not our aunt. I was flabbergasted as I couldn't imagine my Mum ever having made a mistake in her teenage years. A year later my Mum told me herself, when I told her that I already knew she asked me whether I was disappointed in her, I said "no, Mum, it made me love you more".
Mum was a young teenager during the 2nd World War and lived in the  city of Kingston upon Hull, because It was an important port on the eastern seaboard the city was often bombed but it also had a lot of Merchant Navy men coming in and out of the port.
During this time Mum met and fell in love with a young handsome American Merchant Seaman called Wayne Frederick Webber.
Times of war are fraught with worry and the uncertainty of whether you will survive, Wayne departed from Hull on the S.S. Victor Herbert and my Mum discovered shortly afterwards that she was pregnant, she was 17 years old.
After telling her mother, I believe that my Grandfather was serving in the army in India at the time, my Nana went with her to the U.S. Naval headquarters in Hull. Unfortunately they were not received very kindly there and my Mum was asked whether she was sure that the baby was from Wayne Frederick Webber, they also refused to give her any contact details.
Thankfully my Grandparents decided to officially adopt the baby themselves, my Mum was sent off to my Nana's step sister in Bridlington to avoid any gossip in the neighbourhood and when her time of delivery arrived she traveled to a nursing home in Grantham for unwed mothers. Jacqueline Wayne Orwin was born on the 16th September 1944, she was given her Father's name as a middle name.
Jacqui discovered that she was adopted when she was a young teenager, she was very upset with this discovery but when she learnt that her favourite sister whom she called Dodo was her Mum then she was a lot happier though obviously she always wondered about her biological father and who he was.
Mum was able to tell her his name and that he sailed on the SS Victor Herbert, she thought that he was from Wisconsin and he had also mentioned to her once that he was an orphan and that he lived with a foster family, Mum also had a small photo of him which she was able to give to Jacqui.
About 10 years ago I started searching on to see whether I could maybe find Jacqui 's father for her. I found several possibilities and two who fitted the match the closest, they were both born in 1923, one was from Wisconsin and the other was from Indiana and on the 1931 census it showed him as being a foster child.
At the time my younger sister Kim who lives in the U.S.A. decided to try and get in touch with both of these possibilities, but unfortunately without success.
Several months ago I decided to have another search and discovered that the Wayne Frederick Webber who lived in Wisconsin had died last year and that there was a photo of him. I immediately started comparing the photo with the small photo in our possession but Kim thought that his hairline was different, she decided to search on Facebook for a Wayne Frederick Webber and discovered that the Wayne who lived in Indiana was still alive and had recently joined Facebook. By looking through his photos she was able to find a photo of him from when he attended a Veterans Day Event, he was holding a photo of himself as a young man and even though our photo is very unclear he had the same wavy dark hair and the same hairline. Kim was so sure, and always the impulsive one, she decided to try and phone him straight away.

After a friendly introduction she asked him whether he had been in the Merchant Navy and had sailed on the SS Victor Herbert and whether he had ever been in Hull, he said that he had. She then asked him the golden question, whether he remembered a young girl called Doreen Orwin, he was quiet for a few seconds and then he said that yes he did remember a Doreen Orwin. As you can imagine it was a very emotional telephone conversation and even though I live at the other side of the world I was able to listen in on the conversation. Wayne told us several things about his romance with my Mum and that he remembered her running along the harbour to wave goodbye to him, he was also able to speak with my Mum on the telephone.
The next morning we rang Jacqui to tell her that we had found her father, and since then she has also been able to talk with him via Facetime and has also gained a brother and a sister by.
To make sure that we definitely had the right father for Jacqui, Wayne is 96 and my Mum is 92 and has dementia, we decided that it would be a good idea if both Jacqui and Wayne's son do a DNA test. Several weeks ago the results came back and they are half siblings from each other, after 74 years Jacqui has found her missing father and now has a connection with all her family on that side of her family tree.
A little extra bonus of Jacqui doing her DNA test was that I was able to find another missing father! My great, great Grandmother Emma Young was also born out of wedlock and there is no mention of her father on her birth certificate, she was born in Thorne Union Workhouse in 1839 and she was also brought up by her grandparents. After doing a DNA test Ancestry shows you your Thru Lines and potential ancestors, I have already found most of my direct ancestors going back 5 generations but obviously had no way of finding out who Emma's father was until Thru Lines showed me the name of Samuel Lister as being a potential ancestor. I did some research on Samuel Lister and discovered that he and his wife were the Master and Matron of Thorne Union Workhouse!  Another missing father revealed through DNA testing.

Saturday, 6 July 2019

Jean De La Coste and the Mug-house Riots

My last few blogs have been about Leen Arie's Huguenot ancestors,  as I mentioned in my blog of June 2018, his 8th great grandfather Ludovicus De La Coste and his family were forced to flee the safe city of La Rochelle in the Autumn of 1684. They arrived at first in Rotterdam and resided for a time in Dordrecht, Ludovicus remained in Holland and became a vicar in the Protestant church. His parents eventually travelled further to Geneva in Switzerland and his two sisters to London.
His brother Jean studied Medicine at the University of Utrecht and after his graduation also moved to London where he married Maria Suzanne Assaily. 
The father of Jean and Ludovicus died in London in April 1706 and left his son  Ludovicus 500 pounds sterling and Jean 120 pounds sterling and an  annuity of 24 pounds.
Jean's name became  anglicised to John, and he became a practicing physician in London, he and his wife had seven children.
Up until now I hadn't been able to find out anything more about Jean, until today when I was checking out the wonderful website . This website contains among many other things accounts of criminal trials at the Old Bailey, and it was at one of these criminal trials on the 6th of September 1716 that Dr. John De La Coste appeared as a witness, and it had to do with the Mug-House Riots.
To be honest I had never heard of the Mug-House Riots before today, but Google is a wonderful searching tool in order to learn new things.
First of all a Mug House was a gathering place of Hanoverian supporters, a sort of Ale house were everyone brought their own mug and met together to discuss politics and sing songs.
Queen Anne had recently passed away without an heir, so in order to ensure a Protestant Monarch, George the Electorate of Hannover, who had a slight claim to the throne, was invited to come over and become King George I. Anne's deposed father James had a son by his second marriage who had a much stronger claim to the throne, but he was Catholic, so his claim was passed over even though he had many supporters, the Jacobites.
During 1716 there were many skirmishes between the Jacobites and the Hanoverian supporters, these were called Mug-house riots. On the 24 July 1716 there was a "mug-house" riot in Salisbury Court, when Hanoverian whig loyalists celebrating an anniversary at Robert Read's alehouse were attacked by a Jacobite mob. With his life and his property at the mercy of the rioters, Robert Read opened fire with a blunderbuss and Daniel Vaughan was killed. Read was tried for murder at the Old Bailey and there was conflicting evidence about the role of Daniel Vaughan in the riot. Some witnesses claimed he did not have a stick in his hand, while others testified that he led the mob, and that they called him Vinegar or Little Daniel. Read was acquitted. 
It was at this trial that Dr John De La Coste gave evidence, having been in the Mug-house at the time of the attack. Here follows is his statement -

"Dr. John De la Caste deposed, that he went with three Gentlemen through the Mob into the Mug-house that Tuesday about eleven a Clock in the Forenoon, and they followed him almost to the Door. When he saw Mr. Read the Prisoner, he asked him what Provision was in the House for a Defence; and finding none, he wrote a Letter to the Lord Townsend, to inform his Lordship of their Danger, and blamed the Prisoner for not doing so before; and by and by he heard a small Gun go off, which he thought was a Warning-gun for the Mob to fall on; for immediately after they did so with great Fury; and he, being above Stairs with some other Gentlemen, they got out at a Window behind the House; and the Sexton of the Church had the Cruelty to turn a Mastiss loose upon them; but they drew their Swords and told him, they were on the Defence of their Lives, and if he did not call him off, they might be under a necessity of killing the Dog and him too; upon which he called him off: and about a quarter or half an Hour after, he heard the Gun go off which he believ'd kill'd the Man.

Then Dr. De le Coste said he had something more that was material to offer, and standing up, depos'd, That he heard too some of the Mob say, the Duke of Ormond, and some the Duke of Berwick, was landed with 20000 Men. That the Friday-Night before he was Chairman at the same Mug-house; and he received Information, that the Mob threatned to pull it down that Night; and fearing he should want Assistance, he sent a Messenger to the Loyal Society in Tavistock-street , desiring their Company and Assistance if Need should be, on that Occasion, who came very readily and disperst the Mob, so that no Mischief was done that Night; but a few of them went by with a Harp and Fiddle, playing The King shall enjoy his own again. Then the Court told him, that since he said he had been Chairman of that Mug-house; he would do well now he was upon his Oath to give an Account of their Orders and Behaviour. Upon which he told him, That about 8 a Clock at Night the President generally enters the Chair, and after profound Silence is made, they always begin a hearty Mug to the Health and Prosperity of His Most Sacred Majesty King GEORGE; some time after that another to their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales and their Issue, and all the Royal Family; a third to the Glorious and Immortal Memory of the late King William, and seldom or never miss a fourth to the Prosperity of the Church of England, sometimes with a supplement, as wishing she may never want Power nor Inclination to protect and encourage all Protestants, and sometimes without; for the rest, if any are inclined to stay longer, they fill up the Time with other Loyal Healths of lesser Note, as the Chairman or President shall think proper; but never to the Confusion or Damnation of any Person or Thing, as the Enemies to the Government and theirs have falsly given out."

I can fully understand that after all the persecution that John and his family underwent in France under a Catholic Monarch, that he enthusiastically supported a Protestant Monarch.

Friday, 21 June 2019

The Extermination of the Vaudois of Waldensians

Here follows are some excerpts from a book which I found
On Google Books which recounts the terrible persecution of the Vaudois in the Lumeron region in the mid 16th century. Many of the towns and villages are familiar to me after visiting the area, the last excerpt is about La Coste the small hill top town which I believe that Leen Arie's ancestors came from. Did they survive these atrociaties and then decide to move to the safe city of La Rochelle?
Here follows the excerpt.
Monsieur de Thou's History of His Own Time  Volume I - Jacques Auguste de Thou 1729
The Vaudois as they are called were a people, who about three hundred years since hired a rocky and uncultivated part of the Country of the owners, and had, by dint of Pains and constant tillage, rendered it productive of fruits and fit for cattle; that they were extremely patient of labour and want; abhorring all contentions; kind to the poor; that they paid the Prince's Taxes, and their Lords Dues with the greatest exactness and fidelity; that they kept up a show of Divine Worship by daily prayers and innocence of manners; but seldom came to the Churches of the Saints, unless by chance when they went to the neighboring Towns for traffic or other business ; and whenever they set their feet in them , they paid no adoration to the statues of God or the Saints, nor brought them any tapers or other presents; nor ever intreated the Priests to say mass for them, or the souls of their relations; nor crossed their forehead, as is the manner of others; that when it thundered they never sprinkled themselves with Holy Water, but lifting up their eyes to Heaven implored the assistant of God; that they never made religious pilgrimages, nor uncovered their heads in the public ways before the Crucifixes; that they performed their Worship in a strange manner, and in the vulgar tongue; and lastly, paid no honour to the Pope or the Bishops, but esteemed some select persons of their own number as Priests and Doctors.
When this report was made to King Francis, on the eighth day of February, he dispatched an Arret to the Parliament of Aix, wherein having pardoned all past crimes, he allowed the Vaudois the space of three months, within which time they were required publicly to revoke their Opinion:
And that it might be known, who they were, that they were willing to reap the benefit of the Amnesty, it was ordered that chosen persons out of the towns and villages should appear at Aix in the name of the rest of the multitude, and publicly abjure their error: If they persisted in it, the Parliament were empowered and commanded to punish them after the example of former ages, and if need were, to call in the Military Officers to their aid.  The Arret being read in the Senate, Francis Chai and William Armand came to Aix in the name of the Merindolian Commonality, and offered a Petition to the Parliament, that the Cause might be reheard, and examined by a Disputation of Divines; for that it was unjust, that, before they were convicted, they should confess themselves heretics, or be condemned unheard. La Chassagne, in whose breast  his friend's advice had made a deep impression, calling aside the Deputies in the presence of the King's Advocates, admonished them to acknowledge their error, and not by their excessive obstinacy lay the Judges under a necessity of dealing with them more harshly, .......

When things were in readiness and he had under severe penalties summoned all those, who were capable of bearing Arms at Aix, Marseilles, Arles and other populous towns, to come into the field; and when six companies of Foot, with a squadron of horse commanded by Poulain, and other auxiliary troops from Piedmont and Avignon were already assembled; the Royal letters, which had been hitherto suppressed, were read in Parliament : Whereupon the Senators on the 12th day of April decreed the Execution of the sentence passed upon the Merindolians; and the business was committed to the President Francis de la Fons, with the Councilors Honore de Tributus and Bernard de Badet, to whom was joined Nicholas Guerin Kings Advocate, the Principle Incendiary of the War D'Oppede the day following, accompanied by a great body of nobles, repaired to the army at Cadenet, bringing with him four hundred pioneers. The first attack was made upon the country adjoining the town of Pertuis; the villages of Pupin, La Mote and St. Martin near the Durance were taken, pillaged and set on fire. On the following day the little towns of Ville-Laure, Lourmarin, Trezemines and La Roque, from whence the multitude had fled were cruelly burnt and all the cattle driven away. Then D'Oppede consulted about attacking Merindol; but when the townsmen saw the country around them in flames , in order to prevent the danger, they fled into the neighboring woods with their wives and children; which made a most lamentable spectacle, whilst in those by-ways were to be seen marching old men mixed with boys and women carrying their crying infants in cradles, or in their arms or laps. They rested the first night at Sansalaife, where also the inhabitants were preparing all things for a flight, because they knew, that the Bishop of Carvallion the Pope's Legate had ordered his men to massacre them. The next day they advanced further under the security of the thick woods, full of fears from every other quarter: for D'Oppede had outlawed the Vaudois and had ordered under pain of death that none should give them any relief, .......

Thence the town La Coste, the Lord of which place having pacified his ..... for their safety, provided they carry their Arms in .....
broke down their walls in four places, the credulous people did as they were commanded; notwithstanding which, on the arrival of D'Oppede, the suburbs being burnt and the town taken, all that were found left in the place were murdered to a man: The women, who to avoid the first fury of the soldiers, had retired into a garden near the castle, were deflowered, and after the rage of lust was extinguished, handled in so cruel a manner, that most of those which were with child, and even the virgins, died either of grief or by hunger and torments. The men, who sheltered themselves at Murs, being at length discovered, underwent the same fate with the others: The remains of them, wandering here and there among the woods and solitary mountains, led a wretched life, deprived of both wives and children; some few escaped, partly to Geneva and partly to the Swiss Cantons.
In all there are twenty two villages reckoned, which were punished with the last severity by D'Oppede; by whose authority judges were again selected, to make enquiry after the heretics; and these condemned the rest of those poor wretches either to the gallies, or to the payment of excessive fines.

A step back in time

In my last blog I told you that we would be visiting Provence in the south of France and in particular a little town nestled just north of the Petit  Luberon called La Coste, where I think that Leen Arie's Huguenot ancestors De La Coste originally came from.
Visiting the places were our ancestors lived is a great help in family history work as it gives you a first hand feel to the geography and setting of the places which you can't get from a map.
Our first campsite in Provence was close to a small town called Curcuron, which lies at the southern foothills of the Luberon mountains. On our first day, after visiting the lovely little town of Curcuron in the morning we headed off to the slightly larger town of Lourmarin were there was a road which took us through a ravine inbetween the Petit and Grand Luberon. After arriving in the beautiful town of Bonnieux, situated on top of a hill we descended into a valley filled with winegards and  cherry orchards. A short distance from Bonnieux is another, smaller hill top town topped by a castle ruin,  this is La Coste.
 We parked our car outside the town and took a step back into history. The narrow steep streets are cobbled, the houses are whitewashed and not much has changed since Leen Arie's ancestors were living there in the 16th century.
Not far from La Coste there is an old Roman bridge the Pont Julien, this bridge was built in 300 BC, it was built on the Via Domitia , an important Roman road  which connected Italy to the Roman territories in France. I am sure that Leen Arie's ancestors must have crossed this bridge many times.
Whilst visiting a church in the lovely Ochre coloured town of Roussillon I talked to a young man who told me that there was indeed a large population of Protestants in the towns and villages of the Luberon and that they were originally Vaudois or Waldensians.
Vaudois or Waldenses were the common names of a Christian reform movement, initially based out of Lyon in the 1170s. Peter Waldo or Valdo, a prosperous Lyonnais merchant, sold his belongings and began preaching the benefits of a focus on core Christian beliefs. The foundation for this association was a return to a lifestyle of simplistic needs and devotion to God as outlined in the Gospel of the New Testament.
The Vaudois gained advocates in Provence, in an era that coincided with the rise of the Catholic Church’s power in France. Threatened – the Catholic Church declared the Vaudois heretics in 1215.  Between 1309 and 1378, there were seven powerful Catholic Popes residing in Avignon, this Vaudois reform movement was at best an annoyance.
Tensions rose between the two spiritual tangents driving the Vaudois to veil their activities and seek cover in fortified towns of the Luberon valley. On November 18th 1540, the influential Parliament of Provence located in Aix-en-Provence issued the “Arrêt de Mérindol” (Stop Mérindol). Despite numerous appeals King Francis I confirmed the judgment in 1545, and in April of that same year the Vaudois were attacked.
The aggressive incursions were led by Baron Jean Maynier d’Oppède (President of the parliament of Provence) and Antoine Escalin des Aimars (military commander). At least 23 villages were reduced to rubble; deliberate fires engulfed homes, and lives were shredded as callous troops ravaged everything in their path. A senseless slaughter, it is believed that thousands of Vaudois died, and any survivors were tortured by horrific means.
In my following Blog I want to copy some pages from an old book that I found on Google Books - Monsieur de Thou's History of His Own Time which describes the terrible persecutions that the Vaudois suffered, also those living in La Coste.
In 1570 La Rochelle became one of four cities designated as Protestant strongholds in France, after so many troubles in the Provence area the De La Coste family probably decided around this time to move to the safety of this city, a distance of about 800km.

Wednesday, 1 May 2019

Huguenots and Provence

I have just finished reading a book by Tracy Chevalier, author of the Girl with a Pearl Earring. This book is called The Virgin Blue and is set in France, it is the story of Ella Turner or Tournier who moves to France with her husband's work and during her time there begins to research her Tounier ancestors who turn out to be Huguenots who fled their homeland after the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of August 1572 which began after the wedding ceremony of the Catholic King's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre. The massacre began in Paris but spread to other areas of France, it is estimated that about 30,000 Protestants were murdered at this time because of their beliefs and many decided to flee to Geneva in Switzerland or eventually to one of the safe cities like La Rochelle.

St. Bartholomew Day massacre

As I mentioned in a previous blog of June 2018, some of Leen Arie's ancestors were Huguenots who lived in the 17th century in La Rochelle and were refugees to Holland in 1684 after it became impossible for them to remain Protestant in an intolerant country.   
Leen Arie's 8th great grandfather Louis De La Coste was 10 years old when he and his family fled to Holland, later he became a well respected Minister of religion in Dordrecht and in 1717 he decided to write a short history of his family and were they all ended up living after their evacuation from France.
At the beginning of his history he mentions that he often heard his father say that their ancestors were originally from Provence in the South of France and that because of persecution for their beliefs they were forced to flee and ended up in the city of La Rochelle. He then goes on to record that his great grandparents Michel De La Coste and Marie Papin  were witnesses at the marriage of their son Jean in 1624 and that Michel was a merchant and burger of La Rochelle.
It is very probable that Michel or his parents fled Provence in the late 1570's after the St. Bartholomew Day massacre.
Last year we visited La Rochelle and the Isle de Re and this year we are planning on spending our holiday in Provence. Whilst studying the map of the area around Aix au Provence I discovered a small town called La Coste, situated in the Luberon area of Provence. Could this be were Leen Arie's ancestors originally came from? The prefix 'De' in French  means 'of' so the name means Michel 'of' La Coste. Interestingly I have read on internet that alot of Huguenots lived in the Luberon area and the coat of arms of the town of La Coste has a Huguenot cross on it. We will definitely be paying a visit to this place and I will keep you informed. 

Coat of Arms of La Coste Provence

La Coste Provence

Thursday, 7 March 2019

Brickwalls and Printers

A brickwall in genealogical terms is when you frustratingly can't get any further with a certain line. I have been able to trace my paternal Strickland/Stickland line back to the 1600's but with my maternal Orwin line I have become stuck with Robert Orwin who was married in 1825 in London, I believe that he was born around 1796 but because he died just before the 1851 census was taken, which would have told me where he was born I am still not sure where he came from. This is my brickwall.
The Orwin name is dominant in the Sunderland, Newcastle area and I have found a Robert Orwin who was born around that time, did he move down to London to find work as so many did in the 1800's? There are also Orwins in the Chesterfield area and also some Orwins in London.
The name of Orwin can also be misspelled as Urwin, Unwin or Onwin so this makes it even more complicated
My Robert Orwin was a Miller as was his wife's family Sarah Freeman of Frindsbury, Kent. I have found an Orwin/Unwin family living in Frindsbury and one of their children was called Robert, but he died shortly after his birth. Maybe this family had another child called Robert who was born a few years later? I have been unable to find any record up to now but sometimes the parish registers are quite illegible.
Another clue is that a sister of Sarah Freeman, Hester Duly nee Freeman, named one of her children William Orwin Duly, and this was before Sarah married Robert. Who did she name him after? and where the Freeman and Orwin families already connected ?
I have recently ruled out the Robert Orwin who was born in Northumberland as I have found him and his wife and children on the 1841 census, still living in the Northumberland area.
As I mentioned I have my Robert Orwin's marriage record to Sarah Freeman in 1825 in Stepney, London, also the baptism of two of their children in Bermondsey named Sarah and Robert, also an article in the local newspaper about Robert's bankruptcy tells me that he was a Miller living on Tooley Street in Bermondsey. 

Their third child Eliza was baptised in Chatham, Kent and then they moved to Bristol, Gloucestershire, a distance of about 160 miles were their fourth child William was born. Their fifth child Charles was born in Chippenham, Wiltshire. 
Shortly after the birth of Charles the family moved up to Hull, East Yorkshire a distance of 245 miles! Here their sixth and youngest child Maria was born.
Robert worked in one of the many windmills located at that time in Hull, but unfortunately died at the young age of 57 in 1849 of tuberculosis.

His wife and children continued to live in Hull and his eldest son Robert my 2nd great grandfather also became a miller.
I would love to find a definite clue to point me in the right direction of were Robert came from so that I can then trace the Orwin line further back.
Just recently I discovered a Thomas Orwin who was a printer in London in the 16th century, his device was "By Wisdom Peace, By Peace Plenty"
After his death his widow continued his work in the printing shop for several years and printed many books during the rest of her life, a real emancipated woman!
My brother John was a printer for many years so it would be nice if we could link up to this Orwin printing family in some way, maybe it is in our blood.

Friday, 1 February 2019

Last Will and Testament of William Frederick Tozer

Death announcement in local newspaper

Testament of William Frederick Tozer

This is the last Will and Testament of me William Frederick Tozer of Wellingborough in the county of Northamptonshire. Plumber, Painter and Glazier.
I appoint my dear wife Eliza Loman Tozer and my brother Edwin James Tozer of the town of Northampton, Plumber, Painter and glazier, Executers and trustees of this my Will.  I bequeath unto my said wife Eliza Loman Tozer absolutely all my household goods, furniture and implements of household books, plate, linen, china, glass and consumable stores and all my wearing apparel, watches and trinkets.  I also bequeath to my said wife absolutely the legacy or sum of Twenty five pounds to be paid to her as soon as conveniently may be after my decease.  I devise and bequeath all my real estate (if any) whatsoever and wheresoever (except estates vested in me as a trustee or mortgagee) and all my stock and implements or utensils in trade, books and other debts and policies of Assurance on my life and all the residue of my goods, chattels, effects and personal estate unto and to the use of the said Eliza Loman Tozer and Edwin James Tozer their heirs, executors, administrators and assigns according to the natures and qualities thereof respectively. Upon trust as soon as convieniently may be after my decease to sell, dispose of and convert into money all such parts thereof as are in their nature saleable and to collect and get in the residue thereof. And I direct that my trustees or trustee for the time being shall stand possessed of all the moneys to arrive from or be produced by the sales, disposistion, convertion and getting in of my real and residuary personal estates, upon trust in the first place to pay and discharge thereout all my funeral and testamentary expences and just debts and all costs and expences incident to the execution of the trusts of this my Will and also the pecuriary legacy hereinbeforen bequeathed to my said wife. And upon trust in the next place to lay out and invest the residue of the said trust moneys in their, her or his own names or name in the Parlimentary Stocks or funds of Great Britain or at interest upon Goverment or real or any personal security or securities in England and from time to time at their, her or his discretion to alter, vary and transfer the same moneys or any part thereof for into or upon any other stocks, funds or securities of a like nature as often as they, she or he shall think fit and to pay the annual income of the said trust money unto my said wife Eliza Loman Tozer during her life if she shall so long remain my widow. And from and immediately after the decease or second marriage (whichever shall first happen) of my said wife, then upon trust and I do hereby declare that my trustees or trustee for the time being shall stand possessed of all the said trust moneys and the annual income thereof, In trust for my three children William Henry Tozer, Frederick Tozer and Rosa Tozer and such other ( if any) children or child of mine who shall be living at the time of the decease or second marriage (whichsoever shall first happen) of my said wife and who being a son or sons shall attain the age twenty one years or being a daughter or daughters shall attain that age or marry and the issue then living and who shall then have attained or shall thereafter attain the age of twenty one years of such (if any) of my said children as shall be then dead, leaving issue, such children and issue ( if more than one) to take in equal shares as tenants in common but so that the issue of any deceased child shall take by